purposes. ❑Proteases are the most important group of the enzymes produced Actinomycete strains were isolated from mangrove soil and sediments by using. Keywords— Actinomycetes, Mangrove ecosystem, Enzymatic activity, Antimicrobial and Antifungal activity. I. INTRODUCTION angroves are the unique woody. Actinomycetes are numerous for four important enzymes such as amylase, cellulase, Keywords— Actinomycetes, Mangrove ecosystem, Enzymatic II.
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To explore the systematic diversity of mangrove actinomycetes as well as screening of top valued enzymes. The target sampling region was selected on Muthupet mangrove forest, Tamilnadu, India. Soil samples were collected jangrove a depth of cm from the land to the marine. All isolates were identified by classical approach by means of morphological, physiological and biochemical characterization.
In addition, the ability of selective Streptomyces isolates producing important enzymes such as amylase, protease, lipases, esterase and gelatinase were screened for industrial application. In total, actinomycetes were isolated from mangrove sediments and most of the genus belongs to Streptomycetes.
The research focused towards actinomycdtes marine actinomycetes as a source for enzyme reservoir to compensate current industrial demands. Mangroves, Actinomycetes, Diversity, StreptomycesEnzyme sources. Muthupet mangroves look an inimitable ecosystem, situated at the southern end of the Cauvery delta and covering an area approximately 13, ha .
Mangrove is an intertidal zone located in the changeover between land and sea. This ecosystem is categorized by periodic tidal flooding which makes environmental factors such as salinity and nutrient availability extremely variable, resulting in unique and precise characteristic . Microbial diversity comprises an infinite group of novel chemistry, creating upon precious source for innovative mngrove [3, 4]. Marine environments are enormously unusual from terrestrial ones; microorganisms living in this environment produce some unique properties.
Actinomycetes are virtually unrestricted sources of novel compounds with many industrial applications. The distribution of actinomycetes are highly depends upon the uniqueness of environmental condition were studied [5, 6]. However, the distribution of actinomycetes in mangrovs marine is chiefly unexplored or underexploited habitats be pursued as sources of novel compounds for industrial usage [7, 8].
Enzy,es form extensive branching substrate, aerial mycelia with numerous pigmentations and widely distributed in soil .
Currently, mangtove number of investigation has been done to identify ecological factors deciding for active compounds actinomycete soil actinomycetes in the estuarine mangrove ecosystem .
Addition of slightly acidic environment need to harbor a greater diversity of actinomycetes than neutral condition, the use of appropriate selective media for promoting the growth of rare actinomycetes and enhances the selection of members of the actinomycetales family [11, 12, 13]. Among actinomycetes, Streptomyces are dominant and are considered economically important because of more than thousands of antibiotics and manufacture of many commercially significant enzymes are produced by the genus.
Industrial enzymes are naturally used as mass in detergents, textile, pulp and paper industries. It is predictable that the technical enzymes market will increase at a 6.
Mangrove Actinomycetes as the Source of Ligninolytic Enzymes
In recent years, microbial enzymes are replacing chemical catalysts in manufacturing chemicals, food, leather and pharmaceutical industries. Food industry is continuously looking for higher technologies to meet the demand.
Microbial enzymes formed by fermentation technique can simply be scale up. Moreover, due to quick doubling time of microbes with special features than plants and animals, microbial fermentation process actinomycdtes possibly meet the current market demand for industrial enzyme .
Amylase and protease occupies the top most position in the world market and play a actinomycetse role in various industrial applications, the demand of these enzymes increasing day by day, thus it is vital to identify hyper producing microbial strains in order to meet the ever-growing industrial demand. Lipases and esterases are a diverse group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds in triacylglycerides to glycerol and fatty acids .
Lipases have extensive range of enzymatic properties and substrate specificities produce them very useful for industrial function such as processing of fat and oils, additives, detergents, cosmetics, paper manufacturing and pharmaceuticals . Lipolytic enzymes have many industrial applications but still demand for the biocatalyst with novel and specific properties such as pH, temperature, specificity and stability is increasing some new molecular approach . Another one important enzyme gelatinase have established significant attention as targets for drug development; because of their prospective function in connective tissue degradation linked with tumor metastasis.
Based on the valuable application of above all enzymes, the present research planned to elucidate the efficient diversity of actinomycetes distribution, potential usefulness of Actinomyceetes groups in enzyme production was achieved to address the actinomycetes diversity as an essential resource for industrial market.
The underneath soil samples cm were collected from mangrove locations as presented in the GPS point Fig. The soil samples were collected from different region of dense muthupet mangrove forest. The samples were sustained at suitable temperature with mangrove water and were transported to the laboratory. Soil samples were subjected to fold serial dilution and aliquots 0. Plates were incubated for days at suitable temperature.
Natural Products from Mangrove Actinomycetes
Individual isolated colonies were selected for purification of actinomycetes. Purified isolates were kept in slant culture at 4 o C. The selected foremost actinomycetes strains were studied for cultural, morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. The morphology of spore chain ornamentation, spore surface and spore bearing hyphae were identified using light microscope oil immersion objective at x magnification.
Based on the growth phase, rapid growing Streptomyces selected to evaluating the production of amylase, protease, gelatinase, lipase and esterase activity. In each of this analysis, the enzyme activities were calculated by the value obtained subtracting the halo size by the diameter of the Streptomyces colony. Screening of Streptomyces for amylase production was performed by starch hydrolysis reaction.
The Streptomyces isolates were inoculated on starch agar medium and the plates were incubated at 28 o C for days. After Streptomyces growth, 4 ml of iodine solution were loaded onto each plate and observed zone of clearance around the colonies.
Natural Products from Mangrove Actinomycetes
The results were indicated the presence of amylase enzyme . Enzyme activity was detected by visualization of transparent zone around the colonies . Lipolytic activity was detected using a culture medium described by Sierra. After 7 days of incubation, growth was observed and the presence of digestive zone was indicates lipolytic activity.
The presence of degradation zone was indicated esterase activity.
After incubation, halos were observed the culture indicated gelatinase production. The systematic microbial diversity screening process was identified extremely large number of actinobacteria.
Totally actinomycetes was obtained from different location of muthupet mangrove regions. The distribution of actinobacteria including Enzymds sp. The group of genus present in soil sample varied from one region to others. The majority of the actinomycetes isolates from sediment sample are belongs to the genera Streptomycesthe selective isolates is given in Fig. Previous findings clearly reported the diversity and distribution of actinomycetes population were high in Muthupet mangroves .
Diverse group of Actinomycetes were isolated from mangrove environment of Palaverkadu . Members of the actinomycetes, which live in marine environment, insufficiently understood and few reports are available pertaining actinomycetes from mangroves nezymes.
The diversity of actinomycetes was studied from the Palk Strait region of the Bay of Bengal[31, 32]. The present study was similarly corroborates with previous reports that Streptomyces are leading species in the marine atmosphere.
Among them 35 Streptomyces species, were selected based on cultural characterization. Every one of the isolates was identified as gram-positive aerobic and non-endospore forming organism.
The color of substrate and aerial mycelium was recorded in a simple way White, ash, gray, yellow, green, black, red, violet, brown and etc. Spore ornamentation, spore size, surface of the colonies both smooth and rigid appearance was observed Table.
Morphological characterization of Mangrove Streptomyces species. All the isolates were grown in the particular pH and temperature 7. The production of Citrate, Catalase, Urease, Nitrate and Carbohydrate fermentation has been considered for the identification of isolated Streptomyces Table.
Overall results established that there was significant diversity among the Streptomyces species, morphology as well as biochemical and physiological properties. Totally 35 morphologically distinct Streptomyces species were selected for screening of economically valuable enzymes. These finding proved that Streptomyces to be the superior enzyme producing group within the actinomycetes family, mainly for the production of amylase, protease and gelatinase activity.
The extensive variation among the different Streptomyces species on enzyme production was recorded. Microbial diversity is essential one for selecting hyper producing strains in order to meet the ever-growing demand.
Likewise, previous findings also proved the production of enzymes from marine actinomycetes[34, 35]. Hence, the present data state that extremely various amounts of top valued enzymes were screened from numerous Streptomyces species isolated from mangrove environment. Biological diversity of mangrove habitats is significantly identified that large number of enzymes has existed in the Streptomyces species.
The outcome of the present study was actinomycetes diversity established a wide range of isolates in mangrove environment; especially Streptomyces species has been produced a great number of enzymes for industrial application and utilize them in all biotechnological industries. This finding has created a new avenue for mangrove Streptomyces species is essential one for enzyme market. Further development research can improving isolation strategies in the recovery of marine actinomycetes is of greatest significance for ensuring wide achievement in mangrove regions.
To explore the systematic diversity of mangrove actinomycetes as well as screening of top valued enzymes Methods: GPS map of mangroves Isolation of Actinomycetes Soil samples were subjected to fold serial dilution and aliquots 0.
Characterization of Actinomycetes The selected foremost actinomycetes strains were studied for cultural, morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Enzymatic Screening of Streptomyces Based on the growth phase, rapid growing Streptomyces selected to evaluating the production of amylase, protease, gelatinase, lipase and esterase activity.
Amylolytic activity Screening of Streptomyces for amylase production was performed by starch hydrolysis reaction. Diversity of Actinobacteria Fig. Macroscopic observation of numerous Streptomyces species The group of genus present in soil sample varied from one region to others.
Enzyme screening from Streptomyces species The extensive variation among the different Streptomyces species on enzyme production was recorded. Archived from the original on ; Mangrove health in an arid environment encroached by urban development case study.
Sci Total Environ ; J Antibiotic Tokyo ; Fenical W, Jensen PR. Developing a new resource for drug discovery: Nat Chem Biol ;2: Selective screening, isolation and characterization of antimicrobial agents from marine actinomycetes. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci ;5 4: Marine actinobacteria; perspectives, challenges, future directions.
Antonie Van Leeuwehoek ;