El Estructuralismo de Titchener ” OBRAS ” Sus principales obras son: * Psicología experimental () * Sensación y atención (). Edward Titchener. MG. María Alejandra González Vallejo. Updated 18 March Transcript. -Naciones de psicología (). -La nueva psicología (). Structuralism in psychology (also structural psychology) is a theory of consciousness developed by Wilhelm Wundt and his student Edward Bradford Titchener.

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Structuralism in psychology also structural psychology [1] is a theory of consciousness developed by Wilhelm Wundt and his student Edward Bradford Titchener. This theory was challenged in the 20th century. It is whndt who deserves the credit for finding this field of psychology, but it sstructuralismo widely accepted that Wundt created the foundation on which Titchener expanded. Structuralism as a school of psychology seeks estructurxlismo analyze the adult mind the total sum of experience from birth to the present in terms of the simplest definable components and then to find how these components fit together to form more complex experiences as well as how they correlate to physical events.

To do this, psychologists employ introspection, self-reports of sensations, views, feelings, emotions, etc. Titcheneralong with Wilhelm Wundtis credited for the theory of structuralism.

It is considered to be the first “school” of psychology [4] [5]. Because he was a student of Wilhelm Wundt at the University of LeipzigTitchener’s ideas on how the mind worked were heavily influenced by Wundt’s theory of voluntarism and his ideas of association and apperception the passive and active combinations of elements of consciousness respectively. Titchener attempted to classify the estructuralis,o of the mind, like chemists classify the elements of natureinto the nature.


Titchener said that only observable events constituted that science and that any speculation concerning unobservable events have no place in society this view was similar to the one expressed by Ernst Mach. In his book, Systematic PsychologyTitchener wrote:. It is true, nevertheless, that observation is the single and proprietary method of science, and that experiment, regarded as scientific method, is nothing else than observation safeguarded and assisted.

Titchener believed the mind was the accumulated experience of a lifetime.

He believed that he could understand reasoning and the structure of the mind if he could define and categorize the basic components of mind and the rules by which the components interacted. The main tool Titchener used to try to determine the different components of consciousness was introspection. Titchener writes in his Systematic Psychology:. The state of consciousness which is to be the matter of psychology Unlike Wundt’s method of introspection, Titchener had very strict guidelines for the reporting of an introspective analysis.

The subject would be presented with an object, such as a pencil. The subject would then report the characteristics of that pencil color, length, etc. The subject would be instructed not to report the name of the object pencil because that did not describe the raw data of what the subject was experiencing.

Titchener referred to this as stimulus error. In his translation of Wundt’s work, Titchener illustrates Wundt as a supporter of introspection as a method through which to observe consciousness. However, introspection only fits Wundt’s theories if the term is taken to refer to psychophysical methods.


Titchener’s theory began with the question of what each element of the mind is.

He concluded from his research that there were three types of mental elements constituting conscious experience: Sensations elements of perceptionsImages elements of ideasand affections elements of emotions. These elements could be broken down into their respective properties, which he determined were qualityintensitydurationclearness estructiralismo, and extensity.

Both sensations and images contained all of these qualities; however, affections were lacking in both clearness and extensity. And images and affections could be broken down further into just clusters of sensations. Therefore, by following this train of thinking all thoughts were j, which being constructed from elementary sensations meant that all complex reasoning and thought could eventually be broken down into just the sensations which he could get at through introspection.

The second issue in Titchener’s theory of structuralism was the question of how the mental elements combined and interacted with each other to form conscious experience. His conclusions were largely based on ideas of associationism. In particular, Titchener focuses on the ittchener of contiguitywhich is the idea that the thought of something will tend to cause thoughts of things that are usually experienced along with it.

Titchener rejected Wundt’s notions of apperception and creative synthesis voluntary actionwhich were the basis of Wundt’s voluntarism. Titchener argued that attention was simply a manifestation of the “clearness” property within sensation.

Once Titchener identified the elements of mind and their interaction, his theory then asked the question of why the elements interact in the way they do. In particular, Titchener was interested in the relationship between the conscious experience and the physical processes. Titchener believed that physiological processes provide a continuous substratum that give psychological processes a continuity they otherwise would not have.

Therefore, the nervous system does not cause conscious experience, but can be used to explain some characteristics of mental events.

Wilhelm Wundt instructed Titchener, the founder of structuralism, at the University of Leipzig.

The ‘science of immediate experience’ was stated by him. This simply means that the complex perceptions can estrucutralismo raised through basic sensory information. Wundt makes a clear distinction between pure introspection, which is the relatively unstructured self-observation used by earlier philosophers, and experimental introspection. Wundt believes this type of introspection to be acceptable since it uses laboratory instruments to vary conditions and make results of internal perceptions more precise.

The reason for this confusion lies in the translation of Wundt’s writings. When Titchener brought his theory to Americahe also brought with him Wundt’s work. Titchener translated these works for the American audience, and in so doing misinterpreted Wundt’s meaning.

He then used this translation to show that Wundt supported Titchener’s own theories. Structuralism has faced a large amount of criticism, particularly from the school ewtructuralismo psychology, functionalism which later evolved into the psychology of pragmatism reconvening introspection into acceptable practices of observation.

The wstructuralismo critique of structuralism was its focus on introspection as the method by which to gain an understanding of conscious experience. Critics argue that self-analysis was not feasible, since introspective students cannot appreciate the processes or mechanisms of their own mental processes. Introspectiontherefore, yielded different results depending on who was using it and what they were seeking. Some critics also pointed out that introspective techniques actually resulted in retrospection — the memory of a sensation rather than the sensation itself.


Behavioristsspecifically methodological behaviorists, fully rejected even the idea of the conscious experience as a worthy topic in psychology, since they believed that the subject matter of scientific psychology should be strictly operationalized in an objective and measurable way.

Because the notion of a mind could not be objectively measured, it was not worth further inquiry. However, radical behaviorism includes thinking, feeling, and private events in its theory and analysis of psychology. Structuralism also believes that the mind could be dissected into its individual parts, which then formed conscious experience. This also received criticism from the Gestalt school of psychologywhich argues that the mind cannot be totchener down into individual elements.

Besides theoretical attacks, structuralism was criticized for excluding and ignoring important developments happening outside esrtucturalismo structuralism. For instance, structuralism did not concern itself with the study of animal behaviorand personality. Titchener himself was criticized for not using his psychology to help answer practical problems. Instead, Titchener was interested in seeking pure knowledge that to him was more important than commonplace issues.

One alternative theory to structuralism, to which Titchener took offense, was functionalism functional psychology. Functionalism was developed by William James in contrast to structuralism. It stressed the importance of empirical, rational thought over an experimental, trial-and-error philosophy. Researchers are still working to offer objective experimental approaches to measuring conscious experience, in particular within the field of cognitive psychology and is in some ways carrying on the torch of Titchener’s ideas.

It is working on the same type of issues such as sensations and perceptions.

Structuralism (psychology)

Proponents argue that psychology can still gain useful information from using introspection in this case. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For Wilhelm Dilthey’s concept of structural psychology, see Structural psychology Dilthey. This article is written like a personal reflection, personal essay, or argumentative essay that states a Wikipedia editor’s personal feelings or presents an original argument about a topic.

Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Retrieved November 11, Psychology the Science of Behaviour. The Psychology of Human Thought. Psychology the science of wumdt. Retrieved from ” https: Wikipedia titchner with style issues from July All articles with style issues.

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