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Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Rudolf Meyer f formerly: Nevertheless, authors and publisher do not warrant the information contained therein to be free of errors. Readers are advised to keep in mind that statements, data, illustrations, procedural details or other items may inad- vertently be inaccurate.
British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data: A catalogue record for this book is availa- ble from the British Library. All rights reserved including those of translation in other languages. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form – by photoprinting, microfilm, or any other means – nor transmitted or translated into machine language without written permission from the publishers.
Registered names, trademarks, etc. Strauss Offsetdruck, Morlenbach Bookbinding: KG, Neustadt Cover Design: Rudolf Meyer was born on 4. He worked there from on the development of pourable am- monium nitrate explosives and on hollow charges. Rudolf Meyer died on He is survived by his wife, to whom he was married for more than 60 years, and two grown-up sons. Meyer devoted his entire professional life to the chemistry of explosives.
Fortunately it was possible to obtain the services of Dr. Axel Homburg to co-operate in this publication, and so this book now bears the names of three authors.
Unfortunately, the original creator of this book, Dr. Rudolf Meyer, passed away during its preparation. It has since become a standard work, already in its ninth edition. At this point the authors would like to express special thanks to Dr.
Gast Contec GmbH for providing the corresponding information. Volk for their advice and contributions to this book. Because production figures in the explosives industry have been declining markedly for a number of years, the tabulation of product and trade names has been omitted for the time being.
As a new addition, a CD with a tabulation of the current enthalpies of formation and free energies of formation of the compounds occurring in this publication is included with the book for the first time. This tabulation is a compilation of data from the very comprehensive ther- modynamic data base published and continually updated by the Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology ICT.
Among these may be mentioned Dr.
Hornberg ICTDr. Kistner ICTDr. Kohler f AustronDr. Meyer t ICTProf. Prinz Sprengtechnischer Dienst, DortmundDr. Schubert ICTProf. We hope that the large number of people who remain unmentioned will also feel that they share in this expression of thanks. P Biel, for the most pleasant co-operation in the production and printing of this book. The publishers and authors continue to welcome suggestions and communications of any kind.
We hope that our book will remain an important reference work and a quick source of information in this edition as well. The book contains about entries arranged in alphabetical order.
These include formulas and descriptions of about explosive chem- icals, about 60 additives, fuels, and oxidizing agents, and a entry subject index. The objective of the book is to provide fundamental information on daa subject of explosives not only to experts but also to the general public. The book will therefore, apart from industrial companies and research facilities concerned, be found useful in documentary centers, transla- tion bureaus, editorial offices, patent and lawyer offices, and other institutions of this nature.
The properties, manufacturing methods, and applications of each substance are briefly described. In the case of key explosives and raw materials, the standard purity specifications are also listed. The asymmetric margins are provided for entries and marginal notes of the reader.
lehrbch Instructions for the thermodynamic calculations of the performance parameters of high explosives, gun propellants, and rocket propellants are given in somewhat greater detail. The basic thermodynamic data will be found in the extensive synoptic tables. They are based on the metric system; conversion from the English or the U.
The lshrbuch flyleaf contains a glossary of the terms denoting the characteristics of ex- plosive materials in six languages. The elementary form of carbon was taken to be graphite and not diamond, as before.
The numerical values of the energies of formation which, as known, appear both in the relevant entry and in the tables are the optimum molar values found in the enthalpy tables of Volk, Lehrbich and Kuthe: Parts of them have been incorporated in the text.
From the preface of previous editions X The book is not intended as a systematic presentation of the science of explosives. Interested readers are referred to the many excellent publications on the subject, which are available in English see, for example, the books by M.
Cook and the now nearly complete encyclopedia covering the whole explosive field, edited by Seymour M. Kaye formerly by Basil T. A comprehensive list of literature references will be found at the end of the book. It served for camouflage storage of sabotage explosive in World War II. In commercial nitroclycerine explosives, for example, this coloration only develops after 10 minutes or more.
In a more sensitive variant of the method, Zinc iodide – starch paper is employed. The Abel test is still used in quality control of commercial nitrocellu- lose, nitroclycerine and nitroglycol, but is currently no longer employed in stability testing of propellants. Acremite This is the name given by the U. This mixture was at first prepared in a primitive manner by the users themselves to obtain a very cheap explosive for open pit mining under dry conditions.
Das Lehrbuch Der Sprengmeister
The high filler content of an explosive substance has a detrimental effect on the mechanical strength of this type of pro- pellant. At pre- Text quoted from glossary. Actuator 2 sent, the difficult task of developing such improved active binders has yielded only two usable compositions: By means of organic solvents, it is processed into the corresponding LOVA composition.
The glycidyl azide polymer belongs to the group of reactive polymers thermoset materials and is processed together with a main energy conductor, small amounts of softener, inert binders, curing agents and where necessary, accelerating agents.
The type of acceleration and curing agents is determined not only by the final matrix structure, but also by the heat processing time of the respective composition and especially by the processing temperature. This convention governs the con- veyance of dangerous goods on the Rhine.
Sprengmeister Kurzanleitung – PDF Free Download
Airbag Gasgenerator The basic idea of the airbag as a passive restraint system in a motor vehicle was already patented for the first time in Germany in Airbag 4 However, it was not until the end of the sixties that development was begun on the two basic types which have been manufactured up to the present day almost exclusively in series production and have reg- ularly been built into motor cars starting in and in almost every case from onwards.
In the first case the gas bag airbag is inflated with hot gas, and in the second case the gas bag is filled using what is known as a hybrid gas generator in which the gas is permanently stored in a pressure vessel and can flow out after the pyrotechnic ignition. Since there is no need for this gas to be generated pyrotechnically, it acts as cold gas indeed in most cases this gas is re-heated pyrotechnically so that it does not cool down too much as it expands.
Both basic types of gas generator for airbags, the pyrotechnic and the hybrid gas generator, are used for driver, passenger and side airbags and have the following diagram- matic construction see opposite page.
For subject matter reasons, hybrid gas generators will be presented only briefly. In the hybrid system the pre-pressurised gases air, ni- trogen, argon are stored in high-pressure containers fitted with a bursting membrane. Opening this membrane by pyrotechnic means allows the gas to flow out into the airbag.
The cooling of the expanding working gas is compensated or even over-compensated, again pyr- otechnically. Since the total amount of pyrotechnic mixture is small in quantitative terms, the prescribed threshold values of the toxic impuri- ties contained in the working gas can be adhered to relatively easily. This, in addition to the ideal temperature of the working gas, is the main advantage of hybrid gas generators.
The disadvantage of this version is the large weight of the gas cylinder, which is subject to the Pressure Vessel Regulations, and the high noise level that occurs when the sealing disk opens, because initially the full gas pressure is present. The unique feature of almost all pyrotechnical gas generators specifi- cally on lerbuch driver side is the concentric assembly of three different chambers with different designs sprengmiester to their pressure con- ditions and functions.
The innermost chamber with the highest pres- sure resistance contains the igniter unit consisting of a plug, electrical igniter matchhead and the igniter mixture.
Depending on the generator construction, a pre-ignition unit may also be installed, whose task is to ignite the gas mixture without an electric current in the event of exposure to elevated external temperature – for example during a fire. During normal electrical ignition, the thin resistance wire of the igniter matchhead is heated to melting point and the ignition train started.
Deflector plate 1 1. Filter chamber apertures Gas psrengmeister housing Fig. Sectional diagram of a pyrotechnical gas generator for airbags 1. Hybrid generator housing 2. Pressure measurement device Fig. Sectional diagram of a hybrid gas generator for airbags Airbag 6 and is designed for an operating pressure of bar. The gas mixture consists of compressed tablets which, after ignition, burn to form the working gas and slag.
The combustion products leave the combustion chamber through the nozzle holes. The low pressure region of the filter compartment is arranged around the combustion chamber. The filter compartment is fitted with various steel filters and deflector plates. The resulting working gas flows through the filter compartment apertures towards the gas bag. The liquid slag constituents must be cooled down to solidification in the filter compartment so that they can also be drr out there.