Interactive self-report measure of Cattell’s 16 Personality Factors using the Following this discovery he went on to create and promote the 16PF Questionnaire. The main author of the 16PF, Raymond B. Cattell, had a strong background in the physical sciences. Get this from a library! 16 PF Cuestionario factorial de personalidad: manual. [ Mary T Russell; Darcie L Karol; Raymond B Cattell; A K S.
|Published (Last):||6 January 2011|
|PDF File Size:||6.94 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||5.85 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
CattellMaurice Tatsuoka and Herbert Eber. The 16PF provides a measure of normal personality and can also be used by psychologists, and other mental health professionals, as a clinical instrument to help diagnose psychiatric disordersas well as help with prognosis and therapy planning.
The 16PF instrument provides clinicians with a normal-range measurement of anxietyadjustment, emotional stability and behavioral problems. Beginning in the s, Cattell used several techniques including the new statistical technique of common factor analysis applied to the English-language trait lexicon to elucidate the major underlying dimensions within the normal personality sphere.
This method takes as its starting point the matrix of inter-correlations between these variables in an attempt to uncover the underlying source traits of human personality. The 16PF yields scores on primary and second-order “global” traits, thereby allowing a multilevel description of each individual’s unique personality profile.
A listing of these trait dimensions and their description can be found below. Cattell also found a third-stratum of personality organization that comprised just two overarching factors. The most recent edition of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire 16PFreleased inis the fifth edition 16PF5e of the original instrument.
The 16PF Fifth Edition contains multiple-choice items which are written at a fifth-grade reading level. The item content typically sounds non-threatening and asks ucestionario questions about daily behavior, interests, and opinions. A characteristic of the 16PF items is that, rather than asking respondents to self-assess their personality as some instruments do e.
Cattell argued that self-ratings relate to self-image, and are affected by self-awareness, and personlidad about one’s actual traits. The 16PF provides cuestionzrio on 16 primary personality scales and five global personality scales, all of which are bi-polar both ends of each scale have a distinct, meaningful definition. The instrument also includes three validity scales:. The reasoning ability Factor B items appear at the end of the personaliddad booklet with separate instructions, because they are the only items that have right and wrong answers.
Administration of the test takes about 35—50 minutes for the paper-and-pencil version and about 30 minutes by computer. The test instructions are simple and straightforward and the test is un-timed; thus, the test is generally self-administrable and can be used in either an individual or a group setting. The 16PF test was designed for adults at least age 16 and older, but there are also parallel tests for various younger age ranges e.
The 16PF Questionnaire has been translated into more than 30 languages and dialects.
Cattell’s 16 Personality Factors Test
The test has generally been culturally adapted rather than just translated in these countries, with local standardization samples plus reliability and validity information collected locally and presented in individual manuals. The test can be hand-scored using a set of scoring keys, or computer-scored by mailing-in or faxing-in the answer sheet to the publisher IPAT. There is also a software system that can be used to administer, score, and provide reports on the test results directly in the professional’s office; and an Internet-based system which can also provide administration, scoring, and reports in a range of different languages.
There are about a dozen computer-generated interpretive reports which can be used to help interpret the test for different purposes, for example:. In the Fourth cartell Fifth Editions of the 16PF, there were five global factors that seem to correspond fairly closely to the ” Big Five personality traits “. Norman factor-analyzing responses to the same items as the 16PF, replicating Cattell’s work and suggested that five factors would be sufficient. Oblique rotation allows the factors to correlate with each other, whereas orthogonal cxttell restricts the factors from correlating with each other.
16PF Questionnaire – Wikipedia
Although personality traits are thought to be correlated, using orthogonal factor analysis makes the factors easier to understand and to work on statistically in research. This is one of the reasons the Big-Five traits have definitions that are different from the 16PF global factors.
However, other popular big five models consider Dominance as a facet of several Big-Five traits, including Extraversion, Dis-Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Below is a table that shows how the 16 primary factors are related to the five global factors of the 16 Personality Factor theory. Compare with the Hierarchical Structure of the Big Five. Also, note that factor B is considered separate from the other factors because it is not a part of the hierarchical structure of personality in the same way as the other factors.
Assumptions shared by standardized personality tests, simply stated, are that humans possess characteristics or traits that are stable, vary from individual to individual, and can be measured. One major technique of factor analysis, the principal-components method, finds the minimum number of common factors that can account for an interrelated set of scores. As a result, he created the 16PF personality test.
The 16PF Questionnaire was created from a fairly unusual perspective among personality tests. Most personality tests are developed to measure just the pre-conceived traits that are of interest to a particular theorist or researcher.
The main author of the 16PF, Raymond B. Cattellhad a strong background in the physical sciences, especially chemistry and physics, at a time when the basic elements of the physical world were being discovered, placed in the periodic table, and used as the basis for understanding the fundamental nature of the physical world and for further inquiry.
From this background in the physical sciences, Cattell developed the belief that all fields are best understood by first seeking to find the fundamental underlying elements in that domain, and then developing a valid way to measure and research these elements Cattell, When Cattell moved from the physical sciences into the field of psychology in the s, he described his disappointment about finding that it consisted largely of a wide array of abstract, unrelated theories and concepts that had little or no scientific bases.
He found that most personality theories were based on philosophy and on personal conjecture, or were developed by medical professionals, such as Jean Charcot and Sigmund Freud, who relied on their personal intuition to reconstruct what they felt was going on inside people, based on observing individuals with serious psycho-pathological problems.
Cattell  described the concerns he felt as a scientist:. Thus, Cattell’s goal in creating the 16PF Questionnaire was to discover the number and nature of the fundamental traits of human personality and to develop a way to measure these dimensions. At the University of London, Cattell worked with Charles Spearman who was developing factor analysis to aid in his quest to discover the basic factors of human ability.
Cattell thought that could also be applied to the area of personality. He reasoned that human personality must have basic, underlying, universal dimensions just as the physical world had basic building blocks like oxygen and hydrogen.
He felt that if the basic building blocks of personality were discovered and measured, then human behavior e. In Gordon Allport and H. This statement has become known as the Lexical Hypothesiswhich posits that if there is a word for a trait, it must be a real trait.
Allport and Odbert utilized this hypothesis to identify personality traits by working through two of the most comprehensive dictionaries of the English language available at the time, and extracting 18, personality-describing words. From this gigantic list they extracted personality-describing adjectives which they considered to describe observable and relatively permanent traits. Cattell and his colleagues began a comprehensive program of international research aimed at identifying and mapping out the basic underlying dimensions of personality.
Their goal was to systematically measure the widest possible range of personality concepts, in a belief that “all aspects of human personality which are or have been of importance, interest, or utility have already become recorded in the substance of language” Cattell, R.
They studied personality data from different sources e. The 16 Personality Factors were identified in by Raymond Cattell. He believed that in order to adequately map out personality, one had to utilize L-Data life records or observationQ data information from questionnairesand T-data information from objective tests. Cattell used the emerging technology of computers to analyze the list of adjectives through the statistical technique of factor analysis, which seeks to identify constructs that underlie observed variables.
He organized the list of adjectives into fewer than items and asked subjects to rate people whom they knew on each of the adjectives on the list an example of L-data because the information was gathered from observers. This allowed Cattell to narrow down to 35 terms. Ratings of the 35 terms were factor-analyzed, revealing a 12 factor solution.
After the 35 terms were made into self-rating items Cattell found that there were 4 additional factors, which he believed consisted of information that could only be provided through self-rating. This process allowed the use of ratings by observers, questionnaires, and objective measurements of actual behavior.
Cattell called these global factors. Over several decades of factor-analytic study, Cattell and his colleagues gradually refined and validated their list of underlying source traits. The search resulted in the sixteen unitary traits of the 16PF Questionnaire.
These traits have remained the same over the last 50 years of research.
In addition, the 16PF Questionnaire traits are part of a multi-variate personality cuestoinario that provides a broader framework including developmental, environmental, and hereditary patterns of the traits and how they change across the life span Cattell, Since its release inthe 16PF Questionnaire has been revised four times: The US version of the catttell was also re-standardized inalong with the development of forms for children and teenagers; versions for the UK, Ireland, France and the Netherlands were re-standardised in Additionally, there is a shortened form available primarily for employee selection and fe questionnaire has been adapted into more than 35 languages.
The questionnaire has also been validated in a range of international cultures over time. From the beginning of his research, Cattell found personality traits to have a multi-level, hierarchical structure Cattell, Next they factor-analyzed these numerous primary traits to see if these traits had a structure of their own—i.
For example, the first global trait they found was Extraversion-Introversion. It resulted from the natural affinity of five primary traits that defined different reasons for an individual to move toward versus away from other people see below.
They found that there was a natural tendency for these traits to go together in the real world, and to define an important domain of human behavior—social behavior. In a similar manner, these researchers found that four other primary traits consistently merged to define another global factor which they called Receptivity or Openness versus Tough-Mindedness.
This factor was made up of four primary traits that describe different kinds of openness to the world:. Another global factor, Self-Controlled or conscientious versus Unrestrainedresulted from the natural coming together of four primary factors that define the different ways that human beings manage to control their behavior:.
Because the global factors were developed by factor-analyzing the primary traits, the meanings of the global traits were determined by the primary traits which made them up. In addition, then the global factors provide the overarching, conceptual framework for understanding the meaning and function of each of the primary traits.
Thus, the two levels of personality are essentially inter-connected and inter-related. However it is the primary traits that provide a clear definition of the individual’s unique personality. Two people might have exactly the same level of Extraversion, but still be quite different from each other. This individual would be talkative, bold, and impulsive but not very sensitive to others people’s needs or feelings. The second Extravert might be high on Warmth Factor A: Today, the global traits of personality are commonly known as the Big Five.
The Big Five traits are most important for getting an abstract, theoretical understanding of the big, overarching domains of personality, and in understanding how different traits of personality relate to each other and how different research findings relate to each other.
The big-five are important for understanding and interpreting an individual’s personality profile mainly in getting a broad overview of their personality make-up at the highest level of personality organization. However, it is still the scores on the more specific primary traits that define the rich, unique personality make-up of any individual.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. University of Michigan Press. Career assessment and the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire. Journal of Career Assessment, 3 2 Personality and Motivation Structure and Measurement.
Re-examination of the major personality type factors in the Cattell, Comrey, and Eysenck scales: Were the factor solutions by Noller et al.