Oct 4, Comments on the controversial book by Ariel Toaff published by Il Mulino Passover: Jews of Europe and Ritual Homicide, Pasque di sangue. Dec 27, Ariel Toaff is a notorious Israeli university professor of Italian descent who is He is author of the pseudohistorical book Pasque di sangue. BLOOD PASSOVER (PASQUE DI SANGUE). by ARIEL TOAFF. Blood Passover, The Jews of Europe and Ritual Murder – book cover. Cover: Abraham’s sacrifice.

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The Jews of Europe and Ritual Murders orig.

pasqke Ebrei d’Europa e omicidi rituali is a book by Israeli historian Ariel Toaff published in The book analyses a notorious medieval trial regarding accusations of the ritual murder of a child by Jews for the purposes of Passover. It was his third visit to the city, and his arrival was met by an influx of numerous visitors, merchants, adventurers, clerics and relic-hawkers, all keen to obtain certificates attesting to their merits, services and learning.

Among the various groups was a delegation of Ashkenazi Jews, leaders of a community that, over the preceding century, had emigrated in considerable numbers from German lands eangue northern Italy where the expanding commercial empire of Venice offered prospects of prosperity and relief from the afflictions they had suffered in northern lands, in waves of antisemitic pogroms from the age of the Crusades to the Black Death.

Venice had in its employ a spy and intriguer, the Cretan adventurer and businessman David Mavrogonato, regarded as a malshin moser by the Jews of his native Heraklionwho was engaged in furthering Venetian interests in the Ottoman Empire ‘s dominions in the Aegean. He, and his bodyguard and successor Salomone of Piove, enjoyed considerable privileges for services they rendered to the Council of Ten.

Both attempted to employ Jewish physicians in an attempt to assassinate Mehmed II. The cameo role played by these two allows Toaff to touch on the politics of intrigue within the larger Jewish community. Abraham to get an Italian priest to assassinate by poisoning those responsible for the trial at Trentoover the case of Simon of Trentwhich had led to the executions of many Jews in In examining the condottepacts negotiated between Jewish leaders and the local authorities stipulating the duties and conditions under toafff the Jewish communities were given pasquee rights of residency, Toaff elicits a significant difference in cultural values between the native Italian Jewish communities, and those hailing from the German-speaking world beyond the Alps.

The Ashkenazi retained their deep suspicion of the Christian world which, in Germany, had caused them grievous injury, even within the, at the time, more hospitable world of northern Italy.

In various agreements, they asked for and obtained strict guarantees from their hosts against forced conversion by friars and priests, the right to use kosher foods, the right to physical safety, severe punishments to be inflicted on any one who should harm them, and freedom from having their assets seized.

Strict conditions were negotiated to govern the reliability of witnesses in the case of criminal charges being laid against them. They obtained the right to be allowed to follow their own religious observances with ‘zealous scruple’.


In some condottethe authorities were asked, and consented to, expelling any Jews from the city Gemona who converted to Christianity. Both groups competed as suppliers of credit, but the older Italian Jewish communities quickly lost out to the new Yiddish -speaking Ashkenazi, and were forced to close down their banking operations in many northern areas in consequence.

Ariel Toaff – RationalWiki

Toaff describes entrepreneurs from these Ashkenazi communities as brash with the new power of the financial authority they had expeditiously acquired in a mere five decades after their arrival: Salomon of Piove’s two sons, Marcuccio and Salamoncino, outshone their father in their rash adventurousness and bold wheeling and dealing.

The first was distinguished for his braggart haughtiness – he was defined by Venetian authorities as fidelis noster civisand was assured of that city’s protection – sufficiently so to boast of taking on and beating any Christian who might prove bold enough to mess around with him. The other son, Salamoncino, took care of that grey area where shady business ventures and the criminal underworld rubbed elbows, [5] attempting to assassinate Mehmed II, dealing in counterfeit goods and forbidden trade, and fleecing the Jews of Padova, rabbis, widows, students and the poor, of their savings.

When his henchman David Schwab, hit by a cherem by a rabbinical victim, sought arbitration, Salamoncino hired an assassin to kill one of the other members of the swindling consortium, Aaron of Wil. The attempt failed, Salamoncino’s role was discovered. He freely confessed to his Venetian protectors and was imprisoned for 6 months and banned for 4 years from Venice.

Pasque di Sangue — Ebrei d’Europa e omicidi rituali

After one more imbroglio he passes from history. Tobias of Magdeburg, one of the doctors visiting Venice in search of a conferment of an imperial recognition from Frederick III ingave testimony linking the German Jews who had flocked to that city in the Emperor’s train, with the figure of David Mavrogonato.

According to his testimony at the Simon of Trent trial, Mavrogonato had imported, perhaps from Cypruslarge quantities of both sugar and blood for the Venetian market. Specifically, Tobias testified that the German Jews were keen to procure from the daring Cretan trader the blood of Christian children, not for confectioning rare medicines, but rather for obscure magical religious rites.

Asher of Colognea charlatan known in Venice as el Zudio de la barba. According to further testimony by Israel Wolfgang, a double-dealing opportunist, powdered blood from Mavrogonato’s shipment had been used in preparing the wine and unleavened bread for the Passover feast in Salomon of Piove’s home, in Reactions to the book concentrated on the final chapter, which addressed the story of Simon of Trenta young boy murdered by Jews in order to extract his blood to be used in making bread for Passover rituals.

Roman Catholics commemorated Simon’s martyrdom for five centuries, until, inthe Vatican published Nostra aetatewhich aimed at extirpating antisemitism from the Catholic faithful. The Bishop of Trent signed a decree proclaiming that the accusation against the city’s Jews of that city was unfounded, although Saint Simon of Trent is still recognized as a saint. Shortly after its publication, press reports were circulated stating that Toaff claims in his book that there was some truth to the story, and that Christian children may have been killed by “a minority of fundamentalist Jews of Ashkenazi origin.


It turns out that among the remedies of Ashkenazi Jews were powders made of blood. Amos Luzzattoformer president of the Union of Italian Jewish Communitieshas said, “I would expect a more serious statement than ‘it might have been true. It is to decry bad historiographical method.

Writing in the same newspaper, Prof. Ronnie Zangue Hsia states: It is, however, quite a leap of imagination to take testimonies obtained under torture and to construct a hypothetical reality based on unrelated circumstantial facts. It may be true that dried blood or other exotic ingredients were used in popular medicine, Jewish or Gentile – not being an expert on the history of medicine, I remain open-minded on this; but it is sheer blind logic to jump to the conclusion that Jewish groups might have used Christian blood for ritual practices.

The toarf libel has played a particularly nefarious role in the history of paque. On February 14,the author Ariel Toaff said in a statement that he ordered the Italian publisher of his book to freeze distribution of his book so that he can “re-edit the passages which comprised the basis of the distortions and falsehoods that have been published in the media.

A week after its publication, Ariel Toaff withdrew the book from circulation, [10] in arile to “re-edit the passages which comprised the basis of the distortions and falsehoods that have been published in the media” [13] [14] The book was republished the following year.

Toaff added an afterword entitled, “Trials and Historical Methodology. In defence of Pasque di Sangue. This was a manifold, therapeutic, magical, propitiatory, alchemic role which flouted the strict biblical and rabbinic prohibitions on the consumption of blood Through their tendentious interpretations, the magical, therapeutic, alchemic, propitious or maleficent use of blood served to give plausible support toqff the deadly blood libel.

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The lead section of this article may need to be rewritten. Please discuss this issue on the article’s talk page. Use the lead layout guide to ensure the section follows Wikipedia’s norms and to be inclusive of all essential details. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section needs expansion.

You can help by adding to it. Today proving such theories wrong is not the goal of scientific research’. Cited Toaff, Pasque di sangue p. Toaff, Pasque di sangue Il Mulino, Bologna, p. Jerusalem Post February 7, pawque Corriere della Sera 11 febbraio, The Jerusalem Post Feb. In Defence of Pasque di sangue ,’ p. Retrieved from ” https: Articles with Italian-language external links Webarchive template wayback links Wikipedia introduction cleanup from November All pages needing cleanup Articles covered by WikiProject Wikify from November All articles covered by WikiProject Wikify Articles to be expanded from November All articles to be expanded Articles using small message boxes.

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