Three species of tapeworms are found in horses: Anoplocephala magna, A perfoliata, and Paranoplocephala mamillana. They are 8–25 cm long (the first. Anoplocephala magna, Anoplocephala perfoliata. Anoplocephala and Paranoplocephala are two genera of parasitic tapeworms that have. Coprologically diagnosing Anoplocephala perfoliata in the presence of A. magna . Bohórquez A(1), Meana A(1), Pato NF(2), Luzón M(3).
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The 2 species of the genus Anoplocephala AnoplocephalidaeA. However, there is little information about their differences at the molecular level.
The present study revealed that the mitochondrial mt genome of A. The size of each anoplocephsla the 36 genes was the same as that of A. In the full mitochondrial genome, the sequence similarity was The divergence in the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of individual protein-coding genes ranged from The 2 noncoding regions of the mt genome of A.
The results of this study support the proposal that A. Equine tapeworm infections are caused by species of the family Anoplocephalidae in the order Cyclophyllidea. The Anoplocephalidae family has 2 valid genera, Anoplocephala A. Previous studies have shown that both A. These tapeworms are found in and around the ileocecal valve of horses and are thought to be associated with several intestinal diseases [ 23 ] that lead to reduced body weight of horses.
To minimize economic loss, accurate identification and differentiation is needed to help control these equine parasites. Additionally, wnoplocephala genetics, epidemiology, and biology of the species Anoplocephalidae are as yet poorly understood. Complete mitochondrial Mabna have been used effectively to analyze species phylogenetics, ecology, and population genetics, and some genes and gene regions have helped us locate novel manga markers [ 2 – 6 anoplocehala.
The complete mitochondrial DNA of platyhelminthes comprises 12 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal genes and 22 transfer RNA genes [ 5 ]. The complete mitochondrial genome of A. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome of A.
Determining the complete mitochondrial genome of A. Equine tapeworms of the species aoplocephala collected from the digestive tracts of donkeys slaughtered at a commercial slaughterhouse in China and identified by morphology. Total DNA was extracted from a single sample, A. The complete mt genomic sequence of A. The 3 pair-conserved primers and amplifying conditions used for the long-PCR reactions were the same as those described for amplifying corresponding fragments of A.
These amplicons were sequenced by Shanghai Sangon Shanghai, Anoplocephxla using primer-walking in both directions. The gene boundaries of the mt genomic sequence of A. Putative stem-loop structures of non-coding regions were inferred through comparison with similar published sequences. The amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes were deduced using the genetic code set for the flatworm Translation Table 9. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence differences between A.
Anoplicephala complete circular mt genome of A. Putative gene arrangement and lengths of A. All 36 genes are transcribed in the same direction. The nucleotide composition of A.
The genome organization and structure of A. Organization and comparison of mitochondrial genomes of Anoplocephala magna Am and Anoplocephala perfoliata Ap. Twelve protein-coding genes in the A. The proportion was similar to data for other cestodes [ 2 – 6 ], but higher than that of A. This difference in proportion between A. One gene, cox3 anopolcephala, was predicted to end with an incomplete termination codon, as identified in the cox3 of A.
The size of each of the 12 protein-coding genes identified in the mt genome of A.
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A total of 22 tRNAs were identified in A. Among the predicated 36 genes for the A. In the mt genome of A. The rrnL was located between trnT and trnCand was bp in size. The respective sizes of rrnS and rrnL in A. A total of 22 non-coding regions, ranging from 1 bp to bp in size, were aonplocephala in the A.
The 2 largest non-coding regions were named as NC1 and NC2. The possible secondary structures for the 2 largest non-coding regions are shown in Fig. The partial sequence in the NC1 of A. NC2 comprises 7 identical repeats of a 32 nt sequence, and part of this 7th repeat and the remaining 50 bp can fold a perfectly matched stem-loop structure with 25 base pairs and a loop of 14 nt Fig. The overall difference in nucleotide sequence between A. The nucleotide sequence divergence for rrnS and anoplocephwla was 8.
The sequence difference in NC1 between the 2 species was The divergence in the anopolcephala and amino acid sequences of each of the 12 mt proteins in A.
The amino acid sequence of nad4L gene was the least conserved protein, and aoplocephala of cox2 was the most conserved protein. The lengths of the complete genomes of A.
The difference between the lengths of the complete genomes was largely due to differences in the length of NC1, which is caused by the differential number of identical nucleotide repetitive sequence units. Compared to the NC1 of A.
Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Anoplocephala magna Solidifying the Species
The difference in the number of repetitive sequence units in this non-coding anoplocephalq was similar to that between Diphyllobothrium latum and D. The significance of the number variation of repetitive sequence units between closely-related species needs to be evaluated further.
Stem loop structure has been predicted in the non-coding regions in A. Non-coding regions of the A. A substantial difference The finding of the sequence variation in the mt genome between A. In this study, the differences in the nucleotide and amino acid sequences between A. To date, only ajoplocephala molecular marker of internal transcribed spacer 2 has been proposed to be used for differentiating infections caused by the 2 most frequently encountered equine tapeworms, A.
In this study, more gene regions were found to have greater interspecific variation including nad5cytbnad4atp6nad6nad3nad1and cox3 and may thus be considered as ecological and diagnostic markers for the 2 species. Actually, some mt genes mxgna and cytb have been used as targets for molecular-based methods to identify species in other cestodes [ 15 – 18 ].
This study provided new and anoppocephala information about the mt genome of A.
Coprologically diagnosing Anoplocephala perfoliata in the presence of A. magna.
The mt genome data presented here supports the hypothesis that A. The complete mt genome of A. There is no conflict of interest related to this work. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.
Journal List Korean J Parasitol v. Published online Jun Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The 2 species of the genus Anoplocephala AnoplocephalidaeA. Anoplocephala magnaAnoplocephala perfoliatamitochondrial genome. Open in a separate window. Footnotes There is no conflict of interest related to this work. New multiplex PCR method for the simultaneous diagnosis of the three known species of equine tapeworm.
Complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Nagna saginata: Complete mitochondrial genomes of Taenia multicepsT. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Taenia Cestoda: The complete mitochondrial genomes of Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma spindale and the evolutionary history of mitochondrial genome changes among parasitic flatworms. Complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta: The complete mitochondrial genome of Anoplocephala perfoliatathe first manga for the family Anoplocephalidae.
Huang X, Madan A. Laslett D, Canback B. Complete mitochondrial genomes of Diplogonoporus balaenopterae and Diplogonoporus grandis Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidae and clarification of their taxonomic relationships. Repeated sequence sets in mitochondrial DNA amoplocephala of root knot nematodes Meloidogyne: Discrepancy in divergence of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes of Drosophila teissieri and Drosophila yakuba.
Loop-mediated isothermal anoplocehala method for differentiation and rapid detection of Taenia species. Molecular discrimination of taeniid cestodes.
Pathological changes caused by Anoplocephala perfoliata in the equine ileocecal junction.